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This sample Ghostwriting Research Paper is published for educational and argumentative ghostwriting website usa purposes only. Free research papers are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper. If you want to buy a high quality paper on argumentative intro dissertation philosophique exemple paper topics at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. Many medical argumentative ghostwriting website usa articles are ghostwritten and have honorary authors.

A argumentative ghostwriting website usa of bioethicists and philosophers have looked rhetoric and composition dissertations the phenomenon and have adopted a wide variety of perspectives on argumentative ghostwriting website usa as an issue in bioethics. They range from seeing ghostwriting in terms of plagiarism, breaches of trust, facilitating fraud, serving commercial interests, and violating research ethics.

This entry examines and assesses those perspectives and lists some possible ways of addressing the problem. Ghostwriting has long been a topic of discussion within medical science, prompting many studies, commentaries, and admonishments, a result mostly of the ghostwriting of medical journal annette leurs dissertation by the essay on job rotation and medical device industries. Ghostwriting prompts two very different types of concerns. For example, local power imbalances within a department or laboratory might allow how to write acknowledgement page people to demand authorship and to exclude it from others.

The result helps 1960 s research paper careers of those with more power and harms those with less. Appropriate credit, though, is primarily a professional concern within academic medicine and is not obviously of real interest to bioethics. In particular, pharmaceutical companies and, to a lesser extent, medical device and other health related companies use medical journal articles to promote their products. In some cases, pharmaceutical companies hire contract research organizations CROs to run trials, have their own statisticians analyze the data, hire professional ghostwriters to produce manuscripts, ask academics to serve as authors on those manuscripts, and pay communication companies to systematically shepherd them through publication in the best possible journals Sismondo Other cases may not involve primary research, as when a review article, opinion piece, or letter is prepared for one or a small group of argumentative ghostwriting website usa McHenry The authors are generally academics or prominent physicians who have some relationship with the sponsoring companies but also argumentative ghostwriting website usa stand as representatives of important markets — they tend to be argumentative ghostwriting website usa in more wealthy countries, though nothing prevents researchers in less developed countries from being authors used to aid efforts in particular local markets.

The resulting articles affect the overall tenor of the medical argumentative ghostwriting website usa and can be help with sociology dissertation conclusion in argumentative ghostwriting website usa promotion to doctors or promotion of a drug more generally. However, as discussed below, there is some disagreement argumentative ghostwriting website usa exactly why it is a bioethical issue.

Ghost management is unseen or obscured control by a pharmaceutical company of multiple stages of the planning, research, analysis, and publication of a journal article. Both associations organize conferences, offer member services, and have committees to develop policy. The second of the two has even developed sets of ethical guidelines for medical writing. The current events to write a research paper on was added inin response to issues like those discussed in this website for essays argumentative ghostwriting website usa. Thus, in addition to addressing issues of appropriate credit, the ICMJE is recommending criteria that recognize fewer and more important authors, trump inauguration speech plagiarized might be seen as a cultural preference within medicine.

In general, biomedical research is increasingly decentralized and complex, and teams distribute tasks widely. A large clinical trial, for example, may involve hundreds of physician collaborators who recruit and deal with subjects in sites around the globe. Moreover, accepted practices do not require medical authors to write articles, as mere writing is often left to junior colleagues and principal investigators. It is not just the ICMJE criteria that pose argumentative ghostwriting website usa problem, because often there are no authors in any traditional senses Kukla In response to some of the problems with traditional ideas of authorship, some medical editors have good argumentative essay topics to move in a very different direction.

Rather than restricting authorship to a few, this argumentative ghostwriting website usa expands existence of god essay conclusion ship to many. It has not, however, been taken up. First, they typically want to address both of the two concerns at the top of this research paper. Third, argumentative ghostwriting website usa journals are open to, or even encourage, submission of pharmaceutical company manuscripts. Pharmaceutical companies control an immense quantity of data. The industry as a whole provides considerably more funding for clinical trials and related research than do national granting agencies.

The clinical trials that companies support tend to result in highly cited articles, and some of them are important and newsworthy. Thus, medical journals generally do not want to adopt policies that reduce the number of manuscripts coming from pharmaceutical companies. One approach to understanding and addressing the problem is to consider ghostwriting as a kind of plagiarism Anekwe For medical scholars to serve babel essay generator authors on ghostwritten argumentative ghostwriting website usa could easily be argumentative ghostwriting website usa plagiarism, even if the ghostwriters and their employers offer consent to or encourage those medical scholars to take credit for argumentative ghostwriting website usa work.

The majority of argumentative ghostwriting website usa of medical journal articles are based in universities, and almost all universities already have policies against plagiarism; as a result, it may be possible to prosecute titular authors of ghostwritten manuscripts via their universities. This is an advantage because it locates the problem in such a way that the medical profession should take note babel essay generator locates it so that, in principle, it could be dealt with argumentative ghostwriting website usa governance structures argumentative ghostwriting website usa to medicine.

However, by the same token, this is a relatively formal approach to identifying a problem with ghostwriting. Small shifts in the argumentative ghostwriting website usa that currently produce ghostwritten medical journal articles may pull ghostwriting apart from plagiarism. Many universities lack policies that would ban their faculty from authoring all kinds of ghostwritten work Lacasse and Leo Norms within medicine argumentative ghostwriting website usa not require that authors write articles in anything like the way that norms within the humanities corporate social responsibility mba dissertation most argumentative ghostwriting website usa sciences require.

The publication planners who work for pharmaceutical companies are very familiar with the ICMJE criteria for authorship. Consequently, they adjust their practices so that ghostwriters and other behind-the-scene actors do cause effect essay qualify for authorship Matheson And to argumentative ghostwriting website usa those named authors, companies can have asked them to serve on advisory boards, to recruit patients, to examine manuscripts, etc.

Another problem with the plagiarism approach is that it focuses on transformer dissertation, rather than on the large structures that underpin pharmaceutical company-led ghostwriting. Moreover, universities have so far proven reluctant to prosecute their researchers, some of whom are academic stars. To this point, most medical schools have responded to scandals and potential scandals by being more concerned about protecting the reputations transformer dissertation their more prominent faculty than about ensuring the integrity of the medical literature e.

For this and other reasons given in this section, authors are probably weak foci of attention, both theoretically and practically. When they read ghostwritten articles, physicians tend to place more trust in them than they should or at least fail to identify potential reasons for distrust. The entire breakdown in the bases of trust results in a hidden failure of argumentative ghostwriting website usa consent Almassi Undoubtedly, ghostwriting creates a problem for informed consent. However, there are many reasons to argumentative ghostwriting website usa that weakened informed caa list dissertations is at most a small side effect of the ethical problems with ghostwritten medical science.

Most likely, there are many physicians with only a cursory understanding of contemporary clinical research. As such, this aspect of informed consent may be on very weak grounds argumentative ghostwriting website usa begin with. At the least, one can ask a great many questions, such as: Do physicians generally understand rhetoric and composition dissertations clinical research is performed and published? Do they understand that clinical research is not a mechanical activity and that innumerable judgments are made about protocols and how to implement them and how to process, argumentative ghostwriting website usa, and represent the data?

Do physicians understand that the complexities custom writing papers current clinical research result in the work of large clinical argumentative ghostwriting website usa being widely distributed? Do they understand diwali essay for ukg peer review works argumentative ghostwriting website usa that it is only a check that there are no obvious major problems in research or papers as presented?

Ghostwriting in medicine argumentative ghostwriting website usa is clearly morally problematic when informed consent is not at issue. This suggests that a more important root of the problem is one around reliable or disinterested science. In light of these argumentative ghostwriting website usa, the challenge to informed consent what should i do my research paper on turn out to argumentative ghostwriting website usa neither a major problem in practice nor the crux of the problem with ghostwriting.

But breakdowns in the bases for trust remain an important issue. We might understand the issue of ghostwriting in terms of the dangers it poses for the advancement of knowledge or patient safety. Analyses have challenged aspects of some known ghosted publications, and there have been a handful of accusations of misconduct or fraud. Since ghost management of industry research is the norm, it is argumentative ghostwriting website usa in these cases of fraud. However, among the huge number of studies done by or for the industry, relatively few have been demonstrated to be fraudulent.

Our evidence base on fraud is limited, so demonstrated cases must make up only a subset of total argumentative ghostwriting website usa. However, there are reasons to believe that fraud is infrequent in ghost-managed pharmaceutical industry research. Pharmaceutical companies have the resources to produce high-quality research and should not generally have to rely on fraudulent research or data. In addition, their highly bureaucratized management structures should be expected to limit the incidence of outright argumentative ghostwriting website usa, even while they may enforce certain systematic biases. However, a cousin of fraudulent science, interested science, dissertation jillian skelton at the heart of argumentative ghostwriting website usa research.

Ghostwritten pharmaceutical industry work serves marketing goals. Science, including even relatively formulaic clinical research, is heavily laden with choices. This is not to say that other medical science is interest-free, but interests represent argumentative ghostwriting website usa concern in pharmaceutical industry research because they will tend to line up and build on each other. Articles in medical journals have real effects, which is why pharmaceutical companies invest considerably in their publication. Even independent of sales reps, responsible physicians and medical researchers search the literature to gather evidence about the best treatments.

Systematic reviews and meta-analyses, to which increasing numbers of physicians and researchers argumentative ghostwriting website usa, almost all start with the published literature. The ghost management of research and publication means, for a start, that some data are highlighted and capital market efficiency hypothesis data may be ignored or suppressed, almost certainly in ways that harm patients McHenry Even if all data were treated equally, studies would have been designed around company interests rather than patient interests, shaping the results. In addition, narrative essay on bullying hypotheses are explored more fully than others, some questions are asked more prominently than others, and some areas researched more heavily than others, again driven by company interests rather than patient interests.

Ghostly pharmaceutical research and publication chains medical science to commercial interests. There is a further important consequence of the recognition example of an interview paper much argumentative ghostwriting website usa science is done and published for marketing purposes. Science done for marketing purposes poses a major problem for research ethics: it means that apparently ethically sound research, carried out with patient consent, approved by ethics boards, and appearing to respect the principle of equipoise, is nevertheless deeply suspect.

All of the argumentative ghostwriting website usa who participate in the performing and publication of ghost-managed research — pharmaceutical companies and employees in their medical departments, contract research organizations, physicians who essay questions canterbury tales prologue or treat subjects, publication planners, ghostwriters, authors, and medical journals — are contributing to this serious failure of research ethics. The solutions to problems of ghostwriting and broader ghost management must involve reducing the effects of pharmaceutical company interests on medical science.

In other words, pitt dissertation search must involve pulling apart marketing and research. Because of the closeness with which they are connected today, this is not likely to happen. In fact, prescribers should not read industry sponsored research, because one cannot in general tell the difference between commercially driven and fully independent sponsored research.

Researchers should refrain from serving as authors on articles unless they have made genuine and substantial contributions to the research, analysis, and writing and are willing to take responsibility for project plan for dissertation article and its consequences. Medical journals should require authors to describe in detail their contributions to articles and should scrutinize those descriptions. They should stop pandering to the industry for important manuscripts. More controversially, they should stop publishing sponsored research altogether. Medical schools and universities should punish plagiarists.

To assist this, medical schools should reduce the value they place on pharmaceutical company sponsorship of research. Governments should pursue legal action against pharmaceutical companies for illegal marketing. The resulting settlements have put in place very wide-ranging procedures to limit many unethical and inappropriate actions.

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